Identification and control ofprocessing variables that affect the quality and safety of fluid milk
There are potential advantages for bothprocessor and consumer in extending the shelf-life of fluid milk. Uniformly good flavourand acceptable keeping quality are essential in maintaining fluid milk sales. This studywas aimed at increasing the quality and safety of fluid milk by eliminatingpost-pasteurization contamination. Factors involved in the post-pasteurizationcontamination of fluid milk were identified. Raw milk quality, state of cleanliness andsanitizing equipment, carton sanitary conditions, air quality and storage temperature wereexamined. Sequential analysis of the processing system indicated that the filling machineand the pasteurizer were significant sources of post-pasteurization contamination.Eliminating sources of contamination, and proper cleaning followed by sanitizing withchlorine significantly increased milk shelf-life in cardboard containers to 20.4 days froman initial shelf-life of 9 days. Enclosing the filling chamber and air sterilizationreduced variance in milk shelf-life.
Gruetzmacher T.J., Bradley R.L. Journal of Food Protection 1999(June), 62 (6), 625-631 (15 ref.) En:en (saan: 499375)
Bioactive lipids naturallyoccurring in bovine milk
A number of components of bovine milk fathave either beneficial or adverse effects on health. The physiological properties of fattyacids, phospholipids, ether lipids, and steroids are reviewed. Saturated, monounsaturated,and polyunsaturated fatty acids have various effects on atherosclerosis, coronary heartdisease, cancer, and other diseases. The content and biological activity of the group ofconjugated dienes known as conjugated linoleic acid are described; reported propertiesinclude anti-carcinogenic, anti-atherogenic, and immunodilating activities. In contrast,trans fatty acids are believed to increase low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and toreduce the high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, although suggestions that trans-C16:1from milk fat may increase the incidence of coronary heart disease have been disputed.Efforts are being made to increase conjugated linoleic acid without raising the level oftrans fatty acids.
Molkentin J. Nahrung 1999 (June), 43 (3), 185-189 (95 ref.) En:en (saan: 499635)
Milk packaging developments
Packaging developments in the milk marketare discussed. Tetra Pak Ltd had introduced three new packs for pasteurized milk: theTetra Top ScrewCap carton with off-centred, resealable screw cap, the Tetra Top MiniGrandTab carton with a large hinge opening for drinking on-the-move, and the Tetra Brik200 Mid carton. It has also introduced two new long-life cartons – the Slim ReCap cartonand the Tetra Prisma Aseptic. The SproutCap and CombiTop cartons made by Rexam Combiblocare also described. Other companies and their products described include Unigate and theirYou-&-Me milk brands, Haldane Foods Group and its use of Tetra Brik ReCap cartons forsoya milk, Webtech International Ltd’s stretch sleeve labels for milk, Plysu LiquidFoods and its use of the polybottle, and the Pure-Lac process developed by Elopak.
Anon. International Bottler and Packer 1999 (June), 73 (6), 20-25 (0ref.) En:en (saan: 501550)
Predictors of milk consumption in apopulation of 17- to 35-year-old military personnel
Osteoporosis is a serious problem in theUSA. The relationship between demographic, lifestyle and psychosocial factors and milkconsumption was studied using data from 32,144 recruits to the US Air Force. All recruitscompleted a 53-item behavioural health-risk questionnaire. Potential correlates of milkintake were analysed using Spearman rank order correlations and multiple linearregression. Reported intake was low. Milk intake was positively correlated with bodyweight and fruit and vegetable intake and negatively associated with age, education level,milk-related gastric distress, physical activity, dieting frequency and concern aboutweight. Women reported lower milk intakes than men. Ethnic minority groups reported lowermilk intakes than non-Hispanic whites.
Klesges R.C., Harmon-Clayton K., Ward K.D., Kaufman E.M., Haddock K., Talcott W.,Lando H.A. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1999 (July), 99(7), 821-826 (26 ref.) En:en (saan: 501572)
Use of whey in the preparation offermented milks
A study was conducted to prepare fermentedmilk products with a similar consistency to that of set and stirred yoghurt using sweetwhey and with or without starch as stabilizer. Two factorial designs were used todetermine the optimal levels of added whey and starch. The independent variables werepercentage milk and percentage starch. The dependent variable was clot consistency,measured by instrumental and sensory techniques. Satisfactory results were obtained using20% milk and 30% whey with 2.5% starch for set yoghurt and 2% starch for stirred yoghurt.A culture of Bifidobacterium bifidum was used to increase the consistency in the finalproduct.
Camejo J., Rodriguez T., Otero M., Teresa Paz M., Nunez de Villavicencio M., CardosoF. Alimentaria 1999 (June), (303), 131-134 (17 ref.) Es:en:es (saan: 499276)
Kefir: from folklore to regulatoryapproval
Kefir is a fermented milk product that iscommonly consumed in Eastern Europe. Kefir grains from different geographical locationsdiffer in composition. Kefir grains contain a variety of species of yeasts and bacteriaand also contain the polysaccharide kefiran. Kefir production is described. Beliefsregarding the health benefits of kefir and scientific/medical research relating to itskefir are reviewed. The effects of kefir on the immune system and cholesterol levels andcancer are considered. The antibacterial and antifungal properties of kefir are discussed.It was concluded that the promise of kefir could only be realized when scientific datawere available to support health claims.
Farnworth E.R. Journal of Nutraceuticals, Functional and Medical Foods1999 1 (4), 57-68 (38 ref.) En:en (saan: 499927)