Extended shelf-life milks in NorthAmerica: a perspective
The background to the development ofextended-shelf-life (ESL) dairy products, the differences between ESL and asepticproducts, and requirements for the US and Canadian markets are set out. Themicrobiological quality of the raw milk and various aspects of processing are discussed;descriptions of the Pure-Lac system and a microfiltration process are included. Methodsfor improving plant hygiene and reducing contamination are considered. Properties ofpackaging materials and necessary temperature conditions for storage and distribution arealso covered.
Henyon D.K. International Journal of Dairy Technology 1999 (August),52 (3), 95-101 (14 ref.) En (saan: 504724)
Examination of raw cow’s andewe’s milk for human pathogens
The occurrence of human pathogens insamples of milk obtained from cows and sheep was evaluated. In total, 133 bulk milk and 52separator sludge samples from three dairies were evaluated, along with 82 bulk milk, 4aggregate bulk milk and 2 milk filter samples of ewes’ milk. Salmonella was notobserved in any of the cows’ milk samples, whilst Campylobacter and E. coli O157 weredetected at very low levels. Half of the dairy sludge samples contained Listeriamonocytogenes. Neither Salmonella nor Campylobacter were detected in the ewes’ milksamples, whilst between 11 and 17 contained L. monocytogenes. These results suggest thatconsumption of raw milk places humans at risk of infection. The elderly, the young and theimmunocompromised, in particular, should be advised not to consume raw dairy products.
Deutz A., Pless P., Kofer J. Ernahrung 1999 (September), 23 (9),359-362 (16 ref.) De (saan: 506340)
Dietary fibre from milk
Lactulose, lactitol andgalactooligosaccharides – non-digestible derivatives of lactose – can be added tofunctional foods as a source of fibre and as prebiotics. This article describes theproperties and applications of these ingredients and their derivation from lactose. Thegrades and forms in which lactose itself can be supplied are also described.
Janssen A.G.W. Voedingsmiddelentechnologie 1999 (September 2), 32(18-19), 33-35 (1 ref.) Nl (saan: 506094)
The biological efficacy of calciumin milk
The bioavailability of calcium from milkdepends upon many physiological and nutritional factors according to this article. Onekilogram of cows’ milk contains 1.25 g of calcium, of which 20% is bound to caseinand the rest is present in mineral form. Calcium bound to casein is released duringdigestion, but absorption is relatively weak (25%-35%, and comparable to that observedwith calcium obtained from cabbage, calcium carbonate and water). Lactose enhances theabsorption of calcium, as do proteins and phosphopeptides. Non-absorbed calcium acts toprevent cardiovascular disease, colorectal cancer and oxalic lithiasis. The final sectiondifferentiates digestibility, absorbability, bioavailability and bioefficacy.
Anon. Revue Laitiere Francaise 1999 (September), (594), 20-21 (3ref.) Fr (saan: 506329)
Consumer perceptions and sensorycharacteristics in acceptance of nonfat milk
Since consumption of dairy foods hasdeclined in recent years owing to the perception that these foods are high in fat, thedairy industry is attempting to improve the sensory attributes of lower-fat milks. Oneapproach to improving the mouthfeel of non-fat and low-fat milks has been to add a solublefibre-based product that appears to increase the viscosity of non-fat milk, producing amouthfeel of reduced-fat milk, and by contributing beta-carotene adds a creamy coloration.The consumer acceptability of non-fat milk, non-fat milk with insoluble fibre additive,and reduced-fat milk when presented in blind and visual testing formats was evaluated.Hedonic scores for the three types of milk were not significantly different, with averageratings equivalent to ‘like slightly’ to ‘like moderately’ regardlessof presentation. Non-fat milk with added fibre received lower ratings than other types ofmilk. Visual observations of colour differences did not appear to influence acceptabilityof the milk products, but instrumental colour measurements for non-fat milk with addedfibre differed from those of the other milks. Values for all colour components of non-fatmilk with added fibre were closer to those of non-fat milk than those of reduced-fat milk.
Meek K.I., Duncan S.E., Brochetti D. Dairy, Food and EnvironmentalSanitation 1999 (September), 19 (9), 622-625 (28 ref.) En:en (saan: 506056)