Microbiological issues associatedwith heat treated milks

The key issues associated with themicrobiological quality of heat-treated milks are examined, particularly safety andproduct quality. The principal types of heat treatment used for milk includepasteurization, sterilization, thermization and UHT. Microbiological standards for theseproducts are summarized. The pathogens that could occur in raw milk and that could surviveheat treatment are described. Critical control points during the processing of milk arediscussed, including raw milk quality, processing temperature and time, post-processingcontamination and storage temperature. Different tests for measuring the keeping qualityof heat-treated milk are summarized.
Lewis M.J.   International Journal of Dairy Technology  1999(November), 52 (4), 121-125 (23 ref.)  En:en   (saan: 513038)

Rapid methods for testing milk fordrug residues

The beta-Star test is a rapid colour testfor detecting beta-lactam antibiotics in milk with specific receptors.  This articleexplains the procedures for using the two beta-Star test kits, which are designed for 25or 100 analyses.
Anon.   Deutsche Milchwirtschaft  1999 (December 1), 50 (24), 1091-1092(0 ref.)  De:de:en   (saan: 512806)

Vitamins and light

The importance of milk packaging to theprevention of vitamin loss is discussed.  Many vitamins are sensitive to light, andmilk contains other nutrients, which will degrade if exposed to light.  Packaging canprevent milk’s loss of nutritional properties, as well as prevent contamination. Milkand juices are usually packaged in glass, plastic or cartons.  Glass and plasticcontainers allow more light through than cartons (details are given in chart form). Studies into the loss of vitamins A, B2 and C are described, together with therelevance of storage time on milk’s nutritional properties, and the increasedphoto-sensitivity of vitamin A added to skimmed milk.  The author also discussesoff-flavours, and refers to studies in the US and Germany that confirmed that exposure tolight can produce off-flavours in milk stored in transparent containers.
Anon.   Drink Technology and Marketing  1999 (November), 3 (4), 33-34(0 ref.)  En   (saan: 512242)

School milk gears up for the 21stcentury

The re-emergence of school milk programmesin Australia is considered. The industry realises that its future depends upon encouragechildren into a milk drinking habit. Milk is being marketed in ways that appealspecifically to children under 12. Types of marketing tools being used are outlined. Therole of milk within a balanced diet is being stressed. Programmes being introduced inother countries, including New Zealand, the UK and Saudi Arabia are considered.
Stewart N.   Australian Dairy Foods  1999 (October), 21 (2), 38-41 (0ref.)  En:en   (saan: 510935)

Comparison of the sensory profilesof kefir, buttermilk and yogurt

Kefir is a traditionalyeast/lactic-fermented milk beverage that is widely produced and consumed in EasternEurope and Asia. Buttermilk and yoghurt are lactic-fermented milk products. Kefir andbuttermilk could have potential markets in Western Europe. The composition and sensoryprofiles of kefir, buttermilk and plain yoghurt, made with traditional and modifiedstarter cultures, have therefore been investigated and compared. An established sensoryvocabulary for fermented milk products was assessed for its potential to discriminatebetween kefir, buttermilk and yoghurt. Based on the sensory profiles and on previousexperience of the key attributes influencing consumer choice, it is thought that themodified less-acid and creamier kefir would be more acceptable to the consumer in WesternEurope than the traditional products.
Muir D.D., Tamime A.Y., Wszolek M.   International Journal of DairyTechnology  1999 (November), 52 (4), 129-134 (19 ref.)  En:en   (saan:513040)

Enhancing market value of milk byadding cultures

The dairy foods industry has responded toconsumer preferences for foods that promote good health and prevent disease by marketinglow-fat and fat-free dairy products and nutritionally improved products. An overview isgiven of various technologies used for the addition of active cultures and complementaryingredients to provide milk products with innovative flavours, textures and functionalattributes. The role and health benefits of probiotics are discussed. These includelactose digestion, anti-toxin and therapeutic properties against intestinal infections,immunomodulation, reduction of cancer risk and reduction of serum cholesterol.Technologies for incorporation of probiotic cultures in dairy products are described.Recent US patents relating to probiotics are also summarized.
Chandan R.C.   Journal of Dairy Science  1999 (October), 82 (10),2245-2256 (81 ref.)  En:en   (saan: 511855)