Raw cows' drinking milk -tougher checks to be introduced

Following a recent government policy reviewregarding the sale of raw cows' milk in England and Wales, it was decided that theconsumer should be free to decide whether or not to purchase the product. Concernsregarding the potential for pathogenic organisms, especially Escherichia coli O157:H7, tobe present within the milk were raised. This will lead to the tightening of currentregulations regarding the inspection of farm premises to every 12 months and of the randommicrobial testing of the milk samples to four times per year. These changes will alter thecurrent Dairy Products Hygiene Charges Regulations; these will be updated in the nearfuture. Other changes will be made in the labelling of the milk and it will now bemandatory to display warnings for the potential for pathogenic organisms to be present inthe milk.
Moore A.S., MAFF   Food Safety Information Bulletin  1999 (March),(106), 3-4 (0 ref.)  En   (saan: 492731)


Calcium bioavailability in humanmilk, cow milk and infant formulas - comparison between dialysis and solubility methods

There is controversy over the relationshipbetween the in vitro solubility and in vivo bioavailability of calcium. A study wasconducted to determine the percentages of total soluble and dialysable calcium in humanmilk, cows' milk, and milk-based and soya-based infant formulas using an in vitromethod. The ranking of the analysed samples in terms of calcium bioavailability wasdependent on the criterion used. When the dialysis percentage was used, the rankingdecreased in the order cows' milk, human milk, soya-based formula, milk-basedformulas. When the solubility percentage was used, this ranking was human milk, cows'milk, soya-based formula, milk-based formula. There was better agreement between the invivo percentages of calcium absorption and in vitro soluble calcium percentages thanbetween in vivo percentages of calcium absorption and the dialysed calcium percentages.
Roig M.J., Alegria A., Barbera R., Farre R., Lagarda M.J.   Food Chemistry 1999 (May), 65 (3), 353-357 (30 ref.)  En:en   (saan: 492657)


Eureka! (Canned milk)

The development of a process that allowsmilk to be packed in slimline metal beverage cans is described.  The work was partlyfunded under the EU Eureka scheme.  The partners in the project were Continental CanEurope of the Netherlands, Serac of France and Ferrum of Switzerland.  The cans aresterilized using hydrogen peroxide, and the milk heated to 140 C for a few seconds priorto filling into the cans.  The cans are filled under aseptic conditions and theheadspace filled with liquid nitrogen; this allows the can to be pressurized. The pressureinside the can supports the thin walls of the can.
Anon.   Dairy Industries International  1999 (February), 64 (2), 34-35(0 ref.)  En   (saan: 493731)


Opting for a longer life

Unpasteurized milks, pasteurized milks andultra heat-treated (UHT) milk are defined, and the factors that limit their shelf-life aredescribed. Developments in technologies to extend the shelf-life of pasteurized milk arediscussed.  These technologies include bacterial clarification, using a dairyseparator or bacterial centrifuge, which may increase the shelf-life of milk to 11 days. The importance of clean filling lines for bacterially clarified milk is emphasized. Microfiltration and steam infusion may also be used to extend the shelf-life ofpasteurized milk to 25 and 45 days, respectively.  Steam infusion equipment issupplied by APV and Den Hollander.  APV has joined with Elopak to produce thePure-Lac pasteurizer.
Peacock B.   Australian Dairy Foods  1999 (February), 20 (4), 40-42 (0ref.)  En   (saan: 493753)


Soft drink consumption among USchildren and adolescents: nutritional consequences

The consumption of soft drinks hasincreased in US children and adolescents. A study was conducted to determine whetherchildren and adolescents who consume more soft drinks consume lower quantities of milk,fruit juice and the nutrients contained in these beverages. Data were taken from the 1994Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. Among school-age children andadolescents, whites and those residing in metropolitan areas were more likely than blacksand rural residents to consume soft drinks. Energy intake was positively associated withsoft drink consumption. Intakes of riboflavin, vitamin A, calcium and phosphorus, and theratio of calcium to phosphorus were inversely related to soft drink consumption.
Harnack L., Stang J., Story M.   Journal of the American DieteticAssociation  1999 (April), 99 (4), 436-441 (30 ref.)  En:en   (saan:493946)