The following abstracts are just a few examples of some recent records added to the Food Science and Technology Abstracts (FSTA) database, produced by International Food Information Service (IFIS).

Automated beer delivery system.
Hughes, C.; Bock, L.; Mutikainen, P.; Bendiak, D.
Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists 58 (2) 43-46 (2000) [En, es] [Cent. for Innovation, Molson Brewery, 33 Carlingview drive, Etobicoke, Ont. M9W 5E4, Canada]

An automated system for delivery of beer from 2 storage tank installations to a filling line, in operation at the Molson Regina Brewery, is described. Aims of the installation were: provide reliable flow control from tanks to filler; provide a simple flexible operator interface; allow quality control in release of beer for bottling; reduce product shrinkage during beer transfers; reduce O2 uptake by beer; and protect brand integrity. The 2 storage tank installations (1000 and 200 ft from the filling line) are linked to the filler by a single pipeline. The equipment and its control system are described in detail. Fibre optics are used to link the filler and tank control units, because or the large distances involved. Conductivity probes are used to detect differences between brands and to differentiate beer from wash water. Brand selection is verified only when quality control approves the beer. The system allows the operator to preselect source tank for supply of beer to the filler. Performance of the system is good; losses during changeover between brands have been reduced by 95%, resulting in considerable savings of beer. Total pack O2 levels have been reduced by 42% since introduction of the new system, and now average 237 mg/l (range 133-430 mg/l). Planned further automation and integration of process control in the brewery is discussed.


Serogroups of the beer spoilage bacterium Megasphaera cerevisiae correlate with the molecular weight of the major EDTA-extractable surface protein.
Ziola, B.; Gee, L.; Berg, N. N.; Lee, S. Y.
Canadian Journal of Microbiology 46 (2) 95-100 (2000) [19 ref. En, fr] [Dep. of Microbiol. & Immunol., Univ. of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E5, Canada. E-mail ziola@sask.usask.ca]

Megasphaera cerevisiae is a Gram-negative obligate anaerobe that causes turbidity and off-flavour and aroma in beer. 7 isolates of M. cerevisiae were obtained worldwide, and their extractable surface antigens were focused upon to determine if there is >1 serogroup of this bacterium. SDS-PAGE of EDTA bacterial extracts revealed a predominant protein with apparent mol. wt. of 46 000, 45 000, and 43 000 for 3, 2, and 1 isolates, respectively. When mouse antiserum generated against any of the EDTA extracts was reacted with denatured bacterial proteins in immunoblots, all bacterial isolates exhibited extensive cross-reactivity involving 3 antigens, 1 being the major EDTA-extractable protein. In contrast, when the sera were tested for surface reactivity with intact bacteria, 3 cross-reactivity groups were observed, with the groups individually comprised of bacteria having the same size major EDTA-extractable surface protein. When BALB/c mice immunized with a bacterium from each of the 3 serogroups were used for monoclonal antibody (Mab) hybridoma production, bacterial surface-reactive Mab were obtained whose reactivities parallel the 3 polyclonal antibody-defined serogroups. Through combining these surface-reactive Mab, it will be possible to rapidly detect and identify beer contamination by M. cerevisiae belonging to any serogroup.


Investigations to influence the taste stability by varying technological parameters when making beer.
Narziss, L.; Back, W.; Miedaner, H.; Lustig, S.
Monatsschrift fuer Brauwissenschaft 52 (11/12) 192-206 (1999) [17 ref. De, en, fr] [Lehrstuhl fuer Tech. der Brauerei I, 85350 Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany]

Studies were conducted to assess effects of a range of malting and brewing process parameters on flavour compound concn. and flavour stability of beer. Parameters studied included malting barley cv., blending of barleys and malts, malt quality, kilning temp., mashing method, O2 uptake during mashing, biological acidification of the mash, lautering method, wort heating, defective hot break separation, pitching method, aeration intensity, fermentation temp., filtration, pasteurization, bottling, O2-absorbing crown corks with immobilized yeasts, excessive heating during preparation of dealcoholized beer, and deficiencies of storage of the packaged beer. Effects of these parameters on flavour stability are considered in detail. Factors favouring good flavour stability include: good protein modification of the malt; kilning temp. <85°C; mashing with low O2 exposure; low mash pH (approx. 5.2); high mashing-in temp. (62°C); low thermal stress to the wort; efficient separation of hot break; fermentation temp. <12°C; controlled aeration at pitching; avoidance of use of pure O2; and minimization of O2 exposure or heat stress during filtration and bottling.


Consumer testing of commercial lager beers in blind versus informed conditions: relation with descriptive analysis and expert quality ratings.
Guinard, J. X.; Uotani, B.; Mazzuccheli, R.; Taguchi, A.; Masuoka, S.; Fujino, S.
Journal of the Institute of Brewing 106 (1) 11-19 (2000) [30 ref. En] [Dep. of Food Sci. & Tech., Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA]

A beer tasting trial was conducted in which 170 beer consumers (men and women of the age ranges 21-30, 31-40 and 41-50 yr) assessed 24 beers of 3 classes (domestic ice beers and lagers, imported lagers and speciality lagers). Overall degree of liking was assessed, together with degree of liking of appearance, carbonation, aroma, taste, body/mouthfeel and aftertaste; purchase intent and circumstances in which they would consume the beer were also determined. Descriptive analyses were conducted, and the beers were rated for quality by experts. Objectives of the investigation were to assess: acceptance of various lager types by age and gender groups; effects of tasting conditions (with and without knowledge of brand and price); the relation between consumer preferences and descriptive analysis ratings; and the relation between consumer preferences and expert quality ratings. Results showed that: quality ratings by experts were a good predictor of consumer acceptance by women but not acceptance by men; different sensory attributes of beer predicted degree of liking of beers by different age/gender groups; degree of liking and puchase intent for the same beer differed between informed and non-informed taste tests; and different age/gender consumer groups differed in perception of beer drinking occasions and situations.


Technological approach to improve beer flavor stability: analysis of the effect of brewing processes on beer flavor stability by the electron spin resonance method.
Uchida, M.; Ono, M.
Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists 58 (1) 8-13 (2000) [25 ref. En, es] [Res. Cent., Suntory Ltd., 1-1-1 Wakayamadai, Shimamoto-cho, Mishima-gun, Osaka 618-8503, Japan]

An electron spin resonance (ESR) method (used to assess endogenous antioxidative activity in terms of lag time for OH radical generation) was applied to assessment of effects of brewing processes on flavour stability of beer. Stages of the brewing process considered included mashing, hop boiling, hot wort settling, fermentation, and filtration. OH radical formation was observed in wort, with no lag phase; lag time increased during fermentation, and the longest lag time was observed in finished beer. A new index, the OH radical generation activity, was developed for assessment of beer and wort stabilty. OH radical generation activity and endogenous antioxidative activity varied considerably during the brewing process. Possibilities for controlling these characteristics by adjustment of the brewing process are considered. Antioxidative activity in finished beer, and hence its flavour stability, could be maximized by shortening the period of high temp. processing, optimization of aeration of the wort, selection of yeast strains, and selection of appropriate filter aids (especially those with low Fe release). It is concluded that ESR is a useful method for assessment of endogenous antioxidative activity in worts and beers.


[New beer made with sea water or reconstituted sea water.] [Patent]
Goulven, P.; Gras, G.
French Patent Application FR 2 783 526 A1 (2000) [FR 98-11828 (19980918) Fr]

A new beer type is made with replacement of all or part of the brewing water with sea water, either directly or as a freeze dried or spray dried sea water concentrate. The resulting worts are oxygenated and sterilized with ozone.


Process for manufacturing beer. [Patent]
Shibano, Y.; Yomo, H.; Matsumoto, T.; Koda, H.; Suwa, Y.; Amachi, T.; Hatanaka, T.; Shimizu, S. (Suntory Ltd.)
United States Patent US 6 013 288 (2000) [JP 95-29711 (19950217) [Suntory, Osaka, Japan] En]

A method for brewing beer with a reduced content of purine compounds is described. The beer is brewed using wort with a reduced content of purine nucleosides. Reduction of purine content in the wort is achieved by decomposing purine nucleosides into purine bases using nucleoside phosphorylase or nucleosidase or the purine nucleosides may be decomposed into purine bases during fermentation, with the purine bases being metabolized by yeast.


[Gluten-free beer.] [Patent]
Maccagnan, G.; Pat, A.; Collavo, F.; Ragg, G. L.; Bellini, M. P. (Heineken Italia spa; Plasmon Dietetici Alimentari srl)
European Patent Application EP 0 949 329 A1 (1999) [EP 98-830214 (19980408) [Heineken Italia, 11020 Pollein, Aosta, Italy] En]

A gluten free beer is made from a mixture of starting materials comprising ³1 gluten free cereal (selected from buckwheat, sorghum and millet, preferably buckwheat) and enzymes for saccharifying the starch contained in this cereal. The beer is obtained by a process including a stage of saccharifying a mixture containing ³1 gluten free cereal and saccharification enzymes, especially amylolytic enzymes and glucanase. The beer is especially suitable for consumption by gluten-intolerant individuals.